Dogs and cats are two species of animals that are very different from each other. They have different habits and ways of communicating. It is not without reason that the saying “live like a dog with a cat”, that is, arguing with each other constantly. Nevertheless, it is possible to lead to a situation in which the dog and the cat live in harmony with each other. In some cases, a deep friendship may even develop between them. While you can’t make animals like each other, you can at least try to get them to tolerate each other and not hurt each other.
It is worth remembering that every dog and every cat is different. Each pet has a different experience, character and may behave differently in a given environment. Therefore, there is no one good way to get your dog used to your cat. Methods of working with pets must always be selected individually. However, there are a few things that can be done and a few mistakes that can be avoided to ensure a successful introduction to your pets.
The biggest mistake you can make when introducing your dog to a cat is to let both pets loose in the hope that they will get along somehow. Unfortunately, doing so is usually a recipe for disaster. A frightened cat may attack the dog or run away from it. In turn, a sudden movement of a cat can awaken the dog’s hunting instinct and provoke it to chase or even try to catch the cat with its teeth. We should do everything we can to avoid these types of scenarios. Ultimately, it is our job to keep both pets safe and teach them to coexist peacefully.
Proper socialization of both animals is very helpful in building a proper relationship between a dog and a cat. During the socialization period, both puppies and kittens learn which animals are safe and which are potentially dangerous. If the dog during the puppy period was with cats, did not reprimand them and was rewarded for calm behavior with them, there is a good chance that it will accept the cat’s roommate without any problems. Similarly, a cat that has become accustomed to the presence of dogs at an early age and feels safe with them, will more readily accept a dog in its new home.
However, I must emphasize that for the proper socialization of both species, it is not enough for both dogs and cats to be in the breeding farm. The most important thing is the quality of their interaction with each other. If a breeder allowed dogs to chase cats and allow cats to attack dogs, it’s hard to talk about proper socialization.
If you would like to have a dog and a cat at home, the easiest solution may be to take a young puppy and a kitten home at the same time. Caring for two young pets of different species can be difficult. However, this solution gives us the best chance that the animals will get along with each other.
In what order to bring pets into the house
As a rule, it is much easier to bring a cat into a house where a dog already lives than the other way around. Cats get very used to their environment and don’t usually like change. Even a small change of furniture can throw a cat off balance, let alone the appearance of another animal in the house. Especially if we have an old cat at home who needs peace and quiet, introducing a frisky puppy can be especially difficult.
Select pets in terms of temperaments
When deciding on another pet at home, we should consider whether the temperament of the pet we want to adopt will be consistent with the temperaments of animals that are already in our home. As you know, temperament cannot be changed by training or upbringing. Therefore, it is worth considering it when choosing your next pet to avoid unnecessary chaos.
Learning to resign
If you already have a dog in the house and want to introduce a cat to it, you need to work on giving up. In this post, I show you step by step how to teach your dog to “leave”. When a cat shows up at home, the dog’s greatest temptation is to chase it. Therefore, simply practicing giving up eating is not enough. I also recommend practicing giving up the thrown ball or the stick. Your dog’s emotions when chasing a toy are similar to chasing a cat.
We start learning very much like giving up food. We take a stick, ball or other toy in our hand, say the command “leave it” and calmly put it on the ground. As soon as the dog tries to catch the toy, lift it up. When we manage to put the toy on the ground, we praise the dog and reward. After a few successful repetitions, raise the bar and instead of laying the toy calmly on the ground, drop it. If the dog moves towards her, we block him with a leash or with the body. It is also a clear signal that this task is still too difficult for the dog. So let’s go back to the previous stage and work through it better. The next stage is throwing the toy in front of you. If the dog is unable to give up the thrown toy, there is little chance that it will give up the fleeing cat.
It’s also a good idea to exercise a calm reaction to cats during walks. You must not let your dog chase them. It is best to redirect the dog’s attention to yourself from a distance. If we have a developed “leave” command, we can use it here. If the dog still has problems with giving up cats, it is better to walk in the opposite direction or pass the cat along a large arc, than to provoke the dog to chase.
Bringing your dog or cat home
Regardless of whether we bring the cat into the house where the dog lives or vice versa, we must properly prepare both pets and our apartment. It is best to temporarily remove any items that may lead to a conflict. So we hide bowls, toys and lairs. The cat litter box is best placed in a place where the dog cannot reach. If your pooch has a problem with defending resources, it is worth solving it before the cat or other pet appears in the house.
It is also extremely important to provide your cat with at least a few safe hiding places. A tall scratching post or a booth in a place inaccessible to the dog will work well here. You can also install gates for children or special cat doors that will make it easier for him to escape if necessary. Before the introduction, it is worth taking the dog for a long walk, where he can sniff and run as much as he wants. A runaway dog will react much more calmly to a cat appearing in the house than a dog charged with energy. During the walk with the dog, you can ask family members or friends to take the cat into the empty apartment. Thanks to this, he will have time to calmly familiarize himself with the new space and new fragrances.
Stage 1 – insulation
Our priority when taming a dog to a cat should be to ensure both pets’ safety. Therefore, it is best to isolate the animals from each other in the beginning. The cat can be locked in a separate room with a place to rest, a scratching post, bowls, toys and a litter box. You may allow your dog to see the smell of a cat through the door, but do not allow the dog to hit it with its paws or bark loudly. We don’t want the cat to get stressed unnecessarily. To better control your dog’s behavior, it’s best to keep your dog on a leash at home. As soon as the pooch starts to show undesirable behavior or become overly excited by the smell of the cat, we immediately redirect his attention to ourselves or, for example, to olfactory toys. On the other hand, we catch, praise and reward all the dog’s calm behavior.
At this stage, we spend time separately with the dog and separately with the cat. Thanks to this, none of the animals feels lonely. Pets also have time to calmly familiarize themselves with their smells and associate them positively.
Our emotions are very important when introducing a dog to a cat. Animals can read them very well and adapt their behavior to them. When the dog sees that we are being nervous in the presence of the cat, he too may start to act like that. Therefore, staying calm is essential.
Stage 2 – gradual familiarization
When the dog ceases to be interested in a cat in a separate room, we can proceed to the next stage. We install a gate for children in the door to the “cat’s room” and slightly open the door. The gate for children will allow both the dog and the cat to safely learn about their appearance and movements. At this stage, we also constantly control the behavior of both the dog and the cat and strengthen their calm behavior. We do not force the cat to the dog and do not force contact. However, if he decides to approach or pass through the gate himself, we allow it. He will always be able to escape to his safe hiding place when he feels insecure.
At the same time, we do not allow the dog to chase the cat and keep it on a leash for safety. As soon as a cat appears in the field of view, we direct the dog’s attention to ourselves. You can offer him a short training in the basics of obedience or simple olfactory games. We want to show the dog that when a cat shows up, nice things happen, but you can’t chase him. At the same time, the cat learns that it can feel safe with the dog, because its attention is focused on the person, not on him.
When something goes wrong
If, during the entire process, you happen to have the dog chase after the cat or the cat suddenly attacks the dog, don’t panic. Also, don’t punish the pets if something goes wrong. Remember to remain calm. We want the dog or cat to be associated with the dog or cat as positively as possible. In the event of a sudden attack or chase, simply isolate the animals again, give them more time to get acquainted. After some time, when both the dog and the cat behave calmly in their presence, you can gradually open the door from the “cat’s room” more and more, until finally you can also remove the gate for children.
Even if the relationship between the dog and the cat is perfect, it is worth ensuring that each pet has its own, safe place to rest. I also recommend placing the cat’s bowl and litter box in places inaccessible to the dog.
How long can it take to get your dog and cat accustomed to it
There are cases when both the dog and the cat get on well with each other almost from day one. However, it is better to prepare for a scenario in which each stage of getting your pets accustomed to each other will take several days or even several weeks. There are also cases of animals so badly matched to each other that their peaceful coexistence will never be possible. Therefore, you should have a “plan B” prepared for such an eventuality and consider whether we are able to isolate the animals from each other for the rest of their lives, or it is better to look for another, safe home for one of them.
I am very curious about your experiences in introducing your dogs to cats. Let me know in the comment how this process looked like for you and how long it took. Or maybe you are just getting ready to bring your next pet home?
Sometimes we have no choice but to become our pet. A cat or a dog suddenly appear in our lives and become friends. But if we want to make a rational and thoughtful choice of a pet, we should think carefully before doing so. While many of us believe that the cat is less absorbing than the dog, it is a harmful myth that should be debunked once and for all. Like many other myths.
If you’re looking for more advice and information, also check out the Cat questions articles here.
Cat versus dog – species differences
The most important difference between a cat and a dog is that a dog is a herd animal, domesticated between 200,000 and 300,000. years ago, and the cat is a solitary animal, domesticated about 10,000. years ago. These apparently “dry” historical facts have a colossal impact on the behavior of dogs and cats towards humans and each other.
The dog, due to earlier domestication, is much better adapted to life with humans than a cat. In addition, his herd nature helps him find his place in the home hierarchy, even if we have more than one dog.
A cat is by nature a solitary animal that does not need a second cat for its happiness. In the case of incorrect “overestimation”, it can manifest serious behavioral problems, because it is not in its nature to create a hierarchy or a complicated social structure.
A cat has diametrically opposed needs than a dog. This is due to the so-called ethogram, i.e. a set of all behaviors characteristic of a given species. Of course, every living organism needs food and drink, but the similarities stop there. A cat has many unique needs that a dog does not have, and before adopting a cat, you should consider whether we have the time, resources, and capabilities to meet these needs.
The dog needs regular walks, this goes without saying. The cat, on the other hand, needs regular, everyday hunting fun while maintaining the hunting chain. Without this play, the cat’s quality of life runs out of head and neck and is often the cause of behavioral disorders such as attacking household members.
The dog is focused on cooperation with humans – for thousands of years it has been bred for this. The cat as a species has never been used for a specific job, nor has it been genetically selected for that purpose. The natural hunting behavior of a cat simply matched the human needs, therefore the human influence on the cat as a species is much smaller.
This is of great importance in the process of intercourse with the cat. It will not be focused on obeying orders or gaining our approval. For this reason, the relationship with the cat can be difficult for us. We expect animals to obey, and cats rarely obey. At most, they can compromise with us. Also check this article with tips on whether a cat or a dog, i.e. which quadruped is right for you.
Cat versus dog – living costs
When it comes to basic maintenance costs in the form of food or supplementation, they are similar. Typical canned food for dogs and cats does not differ significantly in price. This does not mean that dogs and cats are eating the same thing. You can afford more non-meat additives in your dog’s diet than in a cat’s diet, which is a ruthless carnivore and derives all its nutrients from meat.
However, a cat requires slightly more accessories than a dog. In addition to the litter box, litter and bowls, also a decent scratching post, a few bedding and a few high shelves on the walls. And of course the toys. Taking all this into account, a cat layette will definitely be more expensive than a dog’s layette (leash, collar, bed, bowls, toys).
Additionally, cats do not like sharing, so if we are going to have more cats, we will also have to purchase separate accessories for them. Cats do not live in herds and the use of, for example, one litter box is unnatural for them. Like sharing one toy or bowl, which can generate unnecessary tension.
Basic veterinary care for dogs and cats is not very different from each other. With the proviso that a cat that does not go out has a lower risk of infection with parasites or of getting injured than a dog that goes out every day. Therefore, while a cat can be dewormed rarely, only after faecal examination, the dog is dewormed regularly. It is similar with vaccinations – non-leaving animals do not require the same vaccinations as outgoing animals.
Regular health check-ups are needed for both species, although these are even more important for cats than for dogs. Cats instinctively hide illness and malaise, often until it is too late for effective treatment.
Perhaps the biggest difference between dogs and cats is when behavioral problems arise. Cats are animals that are extremely susceptible to stress and exhibit anxiety reactions more often than the average dog. Unlike dogs, cats do not take comfort from a human handler, much less as dogs. In other words – if a cat has a stress problem, there is a good chance it will require the help of a behaviorist.
In turn, the behavioral problems of a dog can end in criminal liability for us if, for example, our pet bites someone in a park. In the case of cats, this risk is easily reduced, in the case of dogs that have to go out, the risk is considerable.
Cat versus dog – relationship with humans
Scientific research proves that having a pet has a positive effect on our health. Children who grow up at home with a dog or cat suffer less from allergies. Petting a purring cat lowers stress levels and blood pressure. Regular walks with the dog help to maintain good condition and social relationships.
So there is no doubt that both cats and dogs are wonderful life companions. However, each of them in their own way. Cats are much more independent and less focused on the satisfaction of the handler, so they will not endure too long stroking, carrying on their hands or other caresses that they do not want to do. The average dog will be more understanding in these cases.
Define your needs
If you do not have the opportunity to go for a walk with your dog on a regular basis or you have a small apartment, then the cat will actually be a better companion, but with the fact that you will not expect dog behavior from him. If, on the other hand, you do not like dogs, but you dream of going for walks with your pet, you can find a cat that will like to go out. Just remember that a walk with a cat is different from a walk with a dog. They will follow the cat, the dog follows the leg.
If you travel frequently or work long hours, then it is not advisable to adopt any animal. The dog will miss you and the cat will be bored. It is not true that cats do not need human contact. They need. And they certainly need hunting fun that only humans can provide. Taking two cats at once does not release us from the obligation to devote our time to them.
Traveling with a dog is usually easier than traveling with a cat. The dog tolerates changes in the environment well, the cat is quite the opposite. Therefore, if you take a cat, you need to reckon with the need to find a visiting sitter when you decide to go on vacation. Fortunately, there are more and more companies providing professional petsitter services on the market.
Properly conducted puppy training develops appropriate habits and behaviors. This is where a frequently asked question arises. How to punish a dog for bad behavior? Can disciplining or hitting a dog bring real benefits? How to discipline disobedience and what to avoid?
For more advice and information, check out the training articles here.
Puppy Misbehavior or Adult Dog Disobedience – How to Never Scold a Dog?
Before answering the question of how to punish a dog, we must first discuss human behavior that never produces the desired effect. Unfortunately, some people still use negative reinforcement training. This is discipline, catching the dog by the neck, and even slapping the dog. Such discipline for disobedience has nothing to do with training, and the results are usually completely counterproductive.
Punishment as a training method was introduced by Konrad Most, who believed that dogs needed to be dominated. This domination was to be achieved by punishing, grabbing the neck and forcing obedience. The negative reinforcement method even included hitting a dog and rebuking disobedience constantly. The training techniques introduced by Most were quite brutal and required absolute submission from the dogs. As a result, there was biting, fearfulness, aggression and a lack of trust in people. Fortunately, the theory of domination popularized after the Second World War has already been completely disproved.
In the twenty-first century, we already know that slapping a dog, grabbing the neck or verbal scolding are not the most effective training methods. Zoopsychologists emphasize that hitting a dog, grabbing the neck and brutal punishment can trigger anxiety aggression in a dog. It is already known that the animal-human relationship should be based on mutual trust, not fear. By causing anxiety aggression, it is difficult to talk about the attachment of a pet to its owner. As a result, biting, loss of trust in people, and a host of other undesirable behaviors can occur. Therefore, we must emphasize that slapping a dog, scolding a dog or catching an adult dog by the neck are not an appropriate training method. In their place, it is worth focusing on positive reinforcement. According to zoopsychologists, it is very important to properly motivate your puppy and build a lasting bond with the handler. We can punish disobedience and bad behavior in a completely different way, completely avoiding aggression towards a pet.
Positive puppy training according to zoopsychologists
Loud barking, persistent biting of slippers by a puppy or inappropriate behavior during walks do not have to be associated with penalties. According to psychologists, positive reinforcement turns out to be a much more effective method of training.
The positive reinforcement method is based on the introduction of a reward system. These can be your favorite snacks, loud verbal praise, stroking or starting to play. It’s easiest to develop positive habits by rewarding your puppy and adult dog. Moreover, treated in a gentle manner and regularly awarded, the dog will repay you with its loyalty and great trust.
The method of positive reinforcement requires full self-control from the owner. The dog’s body language is also important, as it can tell us a lot. Teaching a young puppy to clean would be a good example. Body language (spinning in a circle, sniffing, barking at the door) can be a signal that your pet needs to go outside. At this point, we go out with the dog, and if he takes care of his needs outside, we reward immediately. As a result, we will obtain the desired behavior, and the puppy will be more willing to communicate his needs and defecate outside instead of at home.
How to punish a dog? Effective punishment that ignores aggression
How to punish a dog for barking, bad behavior or even for being bitten? Most of us imagine that punishment involves aggression, spanking or shouting. As we mentioned at the very beginning, punishing a puppy by slapping or screaming does not give satisfactory results. So how to punish a dog for bad behavior? How to be successful and discipline so as not to spoil your relationship with your pet?
One of the answers to the question of how to punish a dog for bad behavior is to introduce verbal reprimands. Every dog should know the corrective command. It could be “not allowed”, “fe” or a different word the dog can understand. The purpose of entering a corrective command is to stop unwanted behavior (e.g. barking at another dog while walking, biting trouser legs). A corrective command must be issued during the duration of the misbehavior. It is no use yelling at a dog for a few hours after breaking a vase or peeing on a rug.
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The second way to effectively discipline your dog is to deprive him of the expected benefit. When you own a small puppy, you often notice various forcing behaviors. Slipper bite, loud barking or a squeal to play. Unfortunately, we cannot always provide the dog with our full attention. Ignoring the forcing is no benefit, which in turn will result in extinguishing the habit. We do not have to spank the dog to make it notice that the behavior is not bringing him the expected benefits. Also check see this article for tips on how to teach your dog to jump at people.
How do I react to a dog’s bite? Body language and contact with a zoopsychologist
Punishment in the form of taking the expected reward or verbal reprimand not always effective in urgent situations. How do I react to my pet’s bite? First, we need to be aware of what a dog’s body language is. Second, see what is causing aggression in your pet.
Body language such as snarling and snapping teeth in the air are the first clear warning signs. Ignoring them can cause further problems. Dogs generally do not bite for no reason, but only when they feel there is no other option. There is no clear answer to the question of how to punish a dog for aggression and biting the owner. It all depends on the circumstances. We certainly cannot try to dominate the pet, as it may lead to further aggravation of the conflict.
After the bite, there is usually a phase of calming the dog down. We can use this moment to separate the pet. Then it is worthwhile to calmly analyze the causes of the event. Perhaps the bite was related to a sense of threat or a defense of resources. The best solution turns out to be contact with a zoopsychologist. A good specialist will be able to determine the cause of the problem and will suggest how to implement consistent training tailored to individual needs.
If you want more advice from a zoopsychologist or find out if a dog is an eternal child, check out the rest of the articles on this site. You will learn from them how to train and care for a puppy, as well as learn about the basic requirements of pets.
Choosing a dog is quite a challenge that should be carefully considered. A young puppy can grow up to be a large family protector or a small companion pet. This is where the question arises, big or small dog? What kind of pet should you choose for your home or apartment living? It turns out that both solutions bring a number of benefits and sometimes difficulties.
If you’re looking for more advice and information, check out the dog questions articles here as well.
Big or small dog? Maintenance costs
Each large and small breed has its own individual predispositions and requirements. This is one of the first things to consider when making your choice. In many cases, we also consider the cost of living.
Both the small dog living in the apartment and the large pet in the yard require regular veterinary visits. The cost of vaccinations, consultations, and tests is generally lower for small-sized dogs. The large mass of the dog also means the need to purchase larger, more durable toys and a spacious bed for the home. The larger the dog accessories, the higher the purchase price.
Our companion’s food turns out to be another regular expense. A large breed requires much more food. All this means that a small dog living in an apartment weighing a few kilograms will be cheaper to maintain than a large Caucasian Shepherd in the yard.
Big or small dog in the apartment? Requirements for activity and living space
Both a small puppy and an adult dog do not require a lot of space. They will be great in an apartment, as long as we provide them with the right dose of activity. Contrary to appearances, even a small area in an apartment is not an obstacle if the owner of the dog is an active person who has more free time.
Both large and small dogs can run alone in the yard, but it is not sufficient for their proper functioning. Every dog or female dog requires regular walks of adequate intensity. This applies to any dog, regardless of size or breed. During walks, the dog has the opportunity to meet new companions, sniff, explore new places and joyfully explore new areas.
A great need for activity (e.g. in breeds such as the Siberian husky) must be properly utilized. Therefore, before choosing a puppy, it is worth thinking about his needs. This is one of the key issues in the responsible choice of a pet.
Perfect for sport or defense
An adult, large dog or a female dog is generally respected by their stature. It’s hard to say about small Yorkies or miniature Chihuahuas. A large adult dog is generally more balanced. Properly trained, he will not provoke conflicts during walks. The smaller breed is also more spontaneous and often also a loud disposition. Of course, this is not a rule, and the behavior of a pet will largely depend on socialization with the environment, as well as on thoughtful training.
A large breed of dog will be perfect for many of the sports of obedience. Larger dogs can also be selected for specific functions (e.g. guard dog, guide dog, etc.). A small dog or female dog will be perfect for an apartment or a house where less physically active people live. Or maybe he will also be interested this article for tips on how to teach your dog to walk on a leash.
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Big or small dog? Length of life
An adult dog or female dog may survive for several or several years. Life expectancy is one of the considerations we often consider when choosing a pet size. Unfortunately, a large breed of dog generally comes with a shorter life. Molossian dogs live up to 10 years on average, and the larger the breed, the shorter the average life expectancy.
A small and miniature breed is also a long life. Some miniature breeds live up to 18 years, which is not possible for dogs with a very large body weight. Therefore, when you want to choose a home companion for many years, it is worth taking into account the conditions of the breed and its size.
We also note that some breeds have certain genetic loads that significantly affect life expectancy. A good example is the cavalier king charles spaniel. It is a small, extremely cute breed that is perfect for both an apartment and a home. Unfortunately, cavaliers often suffer from mitral regurgitation. It is a severe heart disease, which means that adult dogs have a life expectancy of 9 to 14 years.
An adult dog from a shelter or a puppy from a kennel?
Big or small dog? Each option has certain advantages and difficulties that should be carefully considered. The last issue is the source of the purchase of the pet. We can choose a puppy from the kennel as well as a charming dog from the shelter. Both solutions have their supporters. A purebred dog or female dog will be the perfect choice for people who expect specific predispositions from the dog (e.g. an ideal candidate for sports). A young, well-bred puppy will be properly socialized, which will facilitate further training. Choosing a specific breed will also allow us to determine how big your pet will be in adulthood.
The second solution is a dog from a shelter. We can find both puppies and adult dogs in Polish shelters. The person who decides to choose a dog from the shelter gives the pet a chance for a joyful, adventurous life. Unfortunately, an adult dog or shelter female dog can have a bad experience, which in turn can lead to some behavioral problems. Therefore, choosing a dog from a shelter will be a good solution for people who are aware of possible difficulties and want to take care of the dog with empathy. Even a very fearful shelter dog can show his full potential if he trusts the new owner. At the same time, he will repay you with great love and affection.
A shy dog from a shelter requires very gentle treatment. Allow him time to get used to the new situation and environment. Such a pet should not be left alone in the yard. A much better solution would be to bring him home and provide all his basic necessities. A fearful dog from a shelter will not be the type of pet that immediately demands petting and stroking. In general, the opposite is true. The dog should be kept calm, not petted or forced into contact. We can persuade him to come with a delicacy or a gentle tone. A shy dog from a shelter should also have its own corner. In many cases, a kennel cage works great, which, when properly introduced, gives the pet a full sense of security and shelter.
If you want more information about pets, check out our other articles. We will suggest, among other things, how to tame a dog with a bath, we will discuss the most important requirements of dogs and we will suggest how to properly care for a barking dog. In the remaining articles, you will also learn whether a dog can live in the yard, and you will learn about the most important requirements that a fearful dog from a shelter has.
Perro de presa mallorquin, also known as a Great Dane from Majorca, a fighting dog from Majorca or ca de bou, is a Spanish breed, originating from the Balearic archipelago, which is a region of Spain, specifically the island of Majorca. In Poland, relatively few are on the list of aggressive breeds. Is it right? Let’s get to know this Spanish molos better.
If you’re looking for more advice and information, check out the Great Dane articles as well.
Perro de presa mallorquin origin, appearance, disposition
Dog from Majorca – a historical outline
Perro de presa mallorquin has its origins in antiquity, when shipping in the Mediterranean basin began to develop from east to west. Among the goods exchanged between the inhabitants of different regions of the area, there were also domestic animals, including, of course, dogs. At that time, they were used to guard the goods against robbers and pirates.
The most popular were mastiffs from the Iberian Peninsula, which were used there to fight bulls and dogs and to help hunters. After the conquest of the Balearic Islands by James I the Conqueror in 1230, the dogs were transported there. In the 17th century, the archipelago, including Majorca, was taken over by the British Crown and new inhabitants from the British Isles began to settle on the islands. They brought their own fighting and guard dogs, including English Bulldogs, which began to be uncontrolledly associated with Mastiffs.
In the 18th century, dog fights with bulls became more popular and became a favorite pastime for settlers. English bulldog hybrids with local dogs were used for them, and soon the intentional breeding of such hybrids began for the purposes of fights, because dogs were dying en masse during them. The new crossword was called ca de bou – a bull dog, and the population valued them as much as bullfighters. Therefore, after their death in a fight with bulls, these dogs were bred with honors due to people, and they were also given expensive tombstones.
Fortunately, in the 19th century, these barbaric pastimes were banned by law in Spain. However, this resulted in a lack of demand for ca de bou and the breed began to decline. She was in danger of extinction, although in 1923 the first dog was registered in the Spanish pedigree book, and the breed’s debut at the show took place in Barcelona in 1928. After a year, cao de bou was shown again at this show, and then it was lost. It was not until the 1950s that the breed was reconstructed, which was officially recognized by the FCI in 1965. In Poland, the first individuals were found in 1994 (breeding Osanna).
Perro de presa mallorquin – description of the appearance
The Majorca Dog is a typical Molossian with an elongated body, medium height and massive build. It is characterized by a strong sexual dimorphism, expressed in the appearance of the head. It has a much larger circumference in dogs than in bitches. The skull of a Majorcan Great Dane is large and wide, and its circumference is greater than its height at the withers. When you look at the dog from the front, you cannot see the back. The stop is clearly defined, the superciliary arches form a distinct frontal furrow. Jaws strong, teeth large, white, full dentition. A feature of the breed is undershot bite – a remnant of the English bulldog. It cannot be larger than 1 cm. Teeth with a closed mouth completely invisible. The length of the conical muzzle is 1/3 the length of the skull. Broad nose, black.
Eyes large, oval, slightly slanting, set deep and wide, desirable as dark as possible for a given color. The ears are small, rose petal-shaped, set high, the inside of the ear is visible. The tail is set low, thick at the base, tapering towards the end. Lowered in repose, raised in action to the spine line and slightly curved.
Coat: short and hard hair (such as a Weimaraner). Brindle, fawn and black colors, in this order valued the most. Brindle and fawn colors should be as dark as possible. On the front feet, chest and muzzle, white markings are allowed, which together cannot cover more than 30%. body surface. A black mask is allowed for brindle and fawn colors.
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Height at the withers and weight: Males 55 – 58 cm, 35 – 38 kg. Female 52 – 55 cm, 30 – 34 kg.
Clear (as has, for example, the aforementioned weimaraner) or yellow irises of the eyes
Duplicated ears or tail
More than 30 percent. white markings, white markings in places other than those specified in the pattern (paws, muzzle, chest)
Patches of a different color.
A medium sized dog should have the following dimensions:
Weight – 36 kg
The height of the rump – 58 cm
Height at the withers – 56 cm
Chest circumference – 78 cm
Head circumference – 59.5 cm
Body length from the back of the head to the tail – 73 cm
The length of the head from the back of the head to the nose – 22 cm
The length of the muzzle – 8 cm.
If you are looking for more information, Also check out this article on the Great Great Dane.
Dog from Mallorca – character, upbringing, maintenance, breeding
The disposition and character of the perro de presa mallorquin
The Dog from Majorca is a calm and balanced dog by nature, but at the same time very brave. He has a free attitude towards people, he is faithful and devoted to his family. A perfect watchman, self-confident, he can scare an intruder with piercing eyesight. He treats children and other pets in a caring manner. Quiet, not barking on a daily basis, but barking at strangers in the absence of the hosts. He is always ready to defend his family.
Even though he looks phlegmatic, the Majorca Great Dane needs physical activity and one longer walk a day. The remaining walks may be shorter. Early socialization is very important. Puppies that have good experiences with other animals behave in a calm manner towards foreign dogs in adulthood. If not skilfully led, he can get into a fight if provoked, and then the consequences can be dire for his opponent. Therefore, it is not suitable as the first dog for people who have no experience in laying, especially a dog with such physical strength.
For this reason, it is also important to buy perro de presa mallorquin puppies from proven kennels, registered in the Polish Kennel Club. The Purebred Dog Breeding Regulations stipulate that only individuals who have passed mental tests may be allowed to breed. As this breed is on the list of aggressive breeds, before starting the planned breeding, you should check with the appropriate municipal office about the required permits in order to avoid unpleasant situations.
Nutrition, care, health
Perro de presa mallorquin should be fed a good producer’s food, intended for large (not giant) breeds. This food is balanced and contains all the necessary nutrients, vitamins and minerals. It can also receive natural raw (BARF) or cooked food. Such, however, must be supplemented with vitamins and minerals, especially in puppyhood and adolescence, when the skeleton and teeth are formed. The dog must have access to the water bowl at all times.
Cao de bou care is not complicated. It is enough to brush the dog systematically, wipe the hair with a chamois leather, and bathe only when necessary – for example, when our pet appears in the dirt. Dogs’ claws and teeth are occasionally trimmed and when needed, although this breed is unlikely to develop tartar.
It is a basically healthy breed. However, before being allowed to breed, regardless of meeting all the conditions of the Breeding Regulations of Purebred Dogs (show marks or breeding inspection, mental tests), good breeders screen their dogs for hip dysplasia, even though there is no formal requirement to do so. This disease is highly heritable and it is always better to examine the breeding bitch and the stud dog. In this respect, the opinions of breeders are unambiguous.
The price of a puppy is several thousand zlotys. You should beware of buying puppies from pseudo-kennels, the price of which is three times lower than that of the union ones, but where the parent pair was selected at random, without testing and research, and often without deworming and basic vaccinations. Hence the later opinions about the aggressiveness of dogs of this breed.
You double up and try to please your pet. Once again, however, what you hopefully gave him in the bowl was sniffed, possibly licked, and then ignored? Dogs, like humans, have their tastes and preferences. Perhaps the pet simply does not like the food you give it. However, there are many reasons why the pooch does not want to eat! We suggest what are the most common.
Why don’t dogs eat meals?
If the situation in which the dog does not want to eat happens sporadically, and in the meantime he has not eaten anything during a walk or has not been served with anything by household members or guests, there is probably nothing to worry about. Dogs, like humans and other animals, also have their better and worse days. As a rule, skipping one meal is not a cause for concern.
Perhaps the doggie got fed during the day and is full, or has had a hearty dinner so he isn’t just hungry in the morning. Similarly, in the case of dinner – if the breakfast was solid, the dog may be simply full, so he does not want to eat dinner.
However, if the dog refuses to eat what it has liked so far, consult a veterinarian to rule out possible health causes. If he ate something while walking and then refuses to eat – for his safety also go to the vet.
Usually, however, the reasons why a dog refuses to eat or to eat casually are more prosaic and harmless. Most often, the dog does not eat because:
he is not hungry – the smaller the size of the dog, the lower the daily caloric requirement. If he is calm and not very active – even more so. Often, however, in terms of food, we treat our dog friends “humanly” by serving them meals or snacks several times a day. If the dog ate his normal portion in the morning, and during the day he was served with delicacies – it may be full by evening, hence the reluctance to eat dinner;
has constant access to food– a meal put in the dog’s bowl in the morning stays in it all day, so the pooch has constant access to it at all times? So it probably eats a little bit, you just can’t see it. This way you eat too – and a portion spread over the day can fill him up enough that he just does not want to eat a second meal;
is overfed – each pet food manufacturer determines the daily amount per dog, taking into account its weight and activity level. If the pooch is very active, his portion may be increased. Often, however, we put the food “on the eye” and it may turn out that the less active animal is simply overfed and therefore does not want to eat another meal – because it has not had time to digest the previous one;
he doesn’t like his food – dogs also have their favorite flavors! So it is possible that the dog does not eat or eats very little (just enough to satisfy its hunger) because it simply does not like what you give it. To confirm or rule out this, try another food: wholesome, wholesome and with delicious flavors: Venison and Lamb, like Empire. It is a brand of premium food known for its unique, even legendary taste. The delicious taste of our food is one of the things that our customers value very much!
the way of serving meals is… boring for him! Yes! Dogs, even the smallest, sweet sandwiches, associated more with teddy bears than conquerors – are also! Dogs instinctively need to get. So if your pet’s food is always served directly under the nose and always in the same form – it can be simply boring for him!
There can be more reasons why dogs do not want to eat their meals. Remember that any behavior change that is not episodic in nature requires a medical consultation. In the event that the dog refuses to eat at all, no matter how attractive it is – such consultation is advisable immediately. It may be a sign of health problems, often even very serious ones.
How to encourage a dog eater to eat?
If you suspect that your pooch’s average appetite may be due to one or more of the situations listed above, the easiest way to find out is to change your approach to feeding your pet.
Some dogs, used to being given different treats during the day – often much more attractive than food – are just waiting… for better!
To encourage your dog to eat, it is worth:
serve meals at a fixed time– regardless of whether you feed your pet once or twice a day. Do not leave the food bowl within reach of the pet. Share it at mealtime, for a while, then take it away and give it only at the next feeding time. This will help discipline a slightly picky and comfortable pet;
vary the way food is served – dogs are conquerors! Therefore, try to give him part of the meal in such a way that he can … hunt him down. Feeding dry food in a olfactory mat or a toy that he needs to shake it off is a great way to spice up a dog’s meal – even one he loves on average;
test other flavors – sometimes the food is simply not very attractive: both in terms of taste and smell. Perhaps unpalatable food is a significant cause of your doggie’s hunger strikes. So try another, attractive in terms of taste and smell – like the Empire food, consisting of 80% fresh meat: venison and lamb;
reduce portions – a person, when they eat a lot at once, often doesn’t feel like eating more for the rest of the day. So if you suspect that the dog is simply overeated – divide the daily amount into several portions, and then the problem may solve itself;
give food in the form of a reward– dogs are craving for praise and prizes, and they can do a lot for their treats! Serving food instead of treats is one way to make it gain value in the eyes of your pet. It’s also a great way to serve up a portion of the meal: as a reward and in fun!
Remember that each dog is different, although each has a lot in common with the rest of its species. Both the Little York and the Big German Shepherd have a similar instinct: hunting and capture. It is therefore worthwhile to diversify his meals: delicious, healthy and fragrant food, as well as the method of its administration. Your pet will like it!
Dogs are wonderful creatures that do not deserve suffering. If you have an unwanted pet or you are experiencing problems and cannot care for your dog, do not hurt him or leave him in the woods or on the road. Find out what you can do to find another loving home for him or how to return your dog to a shelter and whether it is paid. The article presents the procedure for the return of the quadruped and other important facts.
If you’re looking for more advice and information, check out the dog questions articles here as well.
A new dog house – what instead of a shelter?
A dog can be troublesome. Both puppies and adult quadrupeds can show aggression and destructive behavior. It happens that the guardian has difficulties with keeping the animal due to the change of financial situation or his illness. In addition, it may also be a problem to provide a chronically ill animal with proper care. There are many difficult situations.
Dismissing your dog at a shelter is better than ditching it, but by taking a moment of your time, you can find a much better solution. Try to put your dog up for adoption thanks to the help of numerous animal foundations. Perhaps their activists will organize a temporary home for the dog and take over looking for a new guardian for him. In this way, the animal will avoid at least some of the stress and discomfort. You can also use social media. There are dog lover groups or visible hand communities where you can find people who can adopt your pet or help you find one.
Nothing came of it? In that case, it’s time to consider putting your dog in a shelter. We check how it can be done and what the cost must be.
How to return a dog to the shelter? – procedure for returning the dog to the shelter
There are state and private shelters in Poland. The largest of them are located in cities such as:
However, there are more small establishments. When looking for a place to return an unwanted dog, consider not only the nearby location, but also your opinion about the place.
The dog is handed over to the facility after it has appeared in person. It will be necessary to give up the dog and sign the relevant documents, which will contain the data from your ID card. The procedure for returning a dog is as follows:
Contact the representatives of the respective shelter. During the conversation, you will be asked to provide a reason for wanting to relinquish your pet’s rights. It happens that volunteers help if the reason for the donation is, for example, behavioral problems.
The shelter staff will also ask you for the dog’s medical records and fill in a questionnaire.
After the shelter’s approval, you bring your dog to the facility and sign the relevant documents.
In some establishments it is payable and costs several dozen or several hundred zlotys. Ask in advance for the cost at the chosen hostel.
After completing the formalities, the dog is taken into the care of the shelter.
If you have such an opportunity, also leave the dog’s toys, bedding or food that he has eaten at the shelter. Also check this article on adopting a dog from a shelter.
Returning the dog taken from the shelter – what is worth knowing?
Another issue is whether and how you can return your adopted dog from the shelter. When deciding to adopt a dog for adoption, you need to be prepared for various problems. Lots of animals are out. Some of them have never lived indoors and may find it difficult to learn to do things outdoors. Others have experienced violence or starvation, so they eat greedily and may defend their bowl aggressively. You have to be ready for all of this. This is one reason puppies find new homes faster. With adult animals, there are times when certain situations overwhelm the new handler.
What to do then? Contact the shelter. It’s free, and you might get help or advice. It is usually possible to put your dog in a shelter, but losing another home is a huge harm for the animal. This is a high price that we often forget!
You already know how to return your dog to the shelter. However, think carefully about your decision. The dog will pay for her as she waits for her new home and experiences stress and fear. Whenever possible, look for a new home for him among your family and friends, or ask appropriate foundations for help. Also remember that behavioral problems can be combated! If you are considering donating your dog because he is showing separation anxiety or is defending his resources, seek help from a behaviorist first.
Autumn favors long walks with the dog in forests and fields. Unfortunately, after such a walk, our pet’s paws and abdomen are usually covered with a thick layer of mud. If we do not want it to be in our home, we must thoroughly wash and wipe the dog after a walk. It is also very important in winter when the pavements are sprinkled with salt. If we do not want her to eat painfully on the dog’s paws, we have to wash and wipe them. Well, with this rubbing the paws in many dogs there is a big problem.
On Instagram, more than half of the respondents indicated that their dogs do not like wiping their paws. On Youtube, when asked, “Do your dogs like wiping their paws after a walk?” 69% of people said their dog tolerates it at best, and 23% said their dogs hate wiping their paws.
Why don’t dogs like wiping their paws?
Wiping your paws is not normal for dogs. In nature, no one wipes mud from wild dogs. Therefore, suddenly grabbing the dog’s paws after a walk and trying to rub them forcibly is not the best idea. By doing this, your pooch will at least be surprised by your behavior. In extreme cases, fear and even aggression may also appear. If you want your dog to easily handle rubbing his paws, you must first get him used to this activity.
Many dogs also have quite sensitive paws and don’t like being touched by humans. Perhaps it is also related to the fact that in nature a dog with injured paws cannot get food and is basically doomed to death. If your pooch does not like to lick his paw, even in the form of a trick, he takes it at the last minute so that you do not touch it, stiffens, moves away from you, looks away, licks his nose, yawns, blinks his eyes or shows other signs of stress or threatening signals. like staring at you, snarling etc. you will definitely have to spend more time getting your dog used to wiping his paws.
When to start getting your dog used to wiping their paws?
The sooner we start getting your dog used to wiping his paws, the better. This treatment can be performed in the form of play with small puppies. Don’t wait until fall or winter to get your dog used to wiping his paws. The entire process may take a day or two, but it may also take longer. It is very important to give your dog as much time as he needs. You may find that you do not manage to wipe each paw thoroughly during the first sessions, and this is normal. Therefore, it is best to start getting used to it when it is sunny, dry and it is not necessary to wipe the dog’s paws.
The whole process is best broken down into as small steps as necessary for your dog. Only when the pooch accepts one stage, we move on to the next. You cannot rush or force anything here. We want to gain the dog’s trust and make him feel calm and safe while wiping his paws.
It is worth getting your dog used to wiping his paws by getting him used to just touching them. This is the first, necessary step not only when washing or wiping the paws, but also, for example, when trimming a dog’s claws. It is best to start getting your dog used to touching his paws when he is rushing, tired, full, and when all his basic needs are met. We can gently reach lower and lower towards the fingers by stroking the dog’s shoulder blade or thigh. It is important that our touch is calm and pleasant for the dog. We do not grasp his paw by force, but we also do not tickle him too softly. During such stroking, we praise the dog with a calm voice. You can also reward him with a treat for his calm behavior. Over time, the dog will allow us to touch not only his shoulder blades or thighs, but also knees, elbows, and finally fingers and claws. As soon as your dog starts sending you anxious signals, take a short break. Give him a rest and return to a more pleasant touch.
Once your dog is letting them touch its paws, it can begin to get used to it to pick them up. We put a hand on the dog’s shoulder and slide down slowly. Many dogs don’t like to be grabbed by their fingers, so it’s better to grab a little higher. Then we slightly raise the dog’s paw to a small height, praise, reward and put the paw back on the floor. We do the same with the hind legs. We put a hand on the thigh, slide down, grab the metatarsus and gently lift the hind leg. We praise the dog and reward it for its calm behavior. If the pooch is not behaving calmly, we go back to the previous stage, i.e. getting him used to the touch.
When lifting the dog’s paws up, it is worth paying attention not to bend them in an unnatural, uncomfortable way for the dog. It is often more convenient for us to wipe the dog’s paw when we raise it higher or when we move it closer to each other. However, it is worth taking into account the fact that the dog may have problems with maintaining balance in an unnatural position for him. We should also make sure that the dog stands on a stable, non-slippery surface when lifting the paws. If your floor is slippery, it is a good idea to put a towel or non-slip mat over it.
I like to put a password to picking dogs’ paws. This is not a formal command like “give a paw”, but rather a message to the dog that I will be lifting its paw up. Thanks to this, the pooch knows what awaits him and has time to prepare for this activity. Before lifting the first paw, I always say “first paw,” before lifting the second paw, “second paw,” etc. After saying these words, I give the dog a moment to prepare to raise a particular paw. I always try to pick them up in the same order. Thanks to this, the dog knows what will happen and after some time it starts giving me another paw. It is worth introducing yourself such a ritual after each walk. This will give the dog a more predictable sense of what will happen and make the dog feel more confident in this situation.
Touching the towel with the paws
The next step in getting your dog used to wiping his paws should be teaching him to touch the towel with his paws. Thanks to this game, your pooch will not only not be afraid of the towel, but will also positively associate it. To teach your dog to touch a towel with his paws, simply place the treat on the ground and cover it with the towel. Then ask the pooch to look for the hidden treat. As soon as his paw touches the towel, you can mark it with a clicker or a sonorous word “yes” and give the dog an additional reward.
If your pooch knows the command “give a paw” you can take advantage of it. Take the towel in your hand and ask the dog to give you the paw by placing it on the towel. Many dogs do this exercise much more willingly than the classic handing of a paw to an empty human hand. Unfortunately, when training with a dog to pass the paw, we often have a tendency to squeeze the dog’s fingers and wave the entire paw, which dogs usually do not like very much. As soon as the pooch puts his paw on the towel by himself, praise him and give him a treat.
Give your dog a choice
A sense of security and control, especially in a stressful situation, is extremely important not only for dogs, but also for us. Just think how you feel at the dentist when you trust him that he does not want to hurt you and you know that you can ask for a short break in tooth drilling at any time. How would you feel if you weren’t sure the dentist wouldn’t hurt you, and if all your requests for a break while drilling were ignored? It is exactly the same for a dog that does not trust a human being and whose paws are held down or lifted forcibly. Therefore, watch your dog’s behavior. Learn to read the first signs of stress and respond accordingly.
Body language is very important when wiping our paws. It is definitely better to sit on the floor or crouch and invite the dog to come to us than to chase him with a towel or bend over him. Bending over a dog is especially stressful for puppies and little dogs. I would also be afraid if a giant several times bigger than me wanted to grab my leg and lift it up. The dog’s approach to you is the first sign that it is ready to wipe its paws. What if, despite the encouragement, the dog refuses to approach you? In such a situation, it is worth getting back to getting him used to the touch and lifting his paws.
However, when the pooch comes up, you can reach out with a towel and say, for example, “first paw, punch”. If the pooch has been taught this slogan well beforehand, he knows that we expect a paw. The towel with our slogan is therefore an invitation for the dog to wipe its paws. Then we wait for the dog to give us the paw. This is the moment when we give him the opportunity to choose. He can give us a paw and receive a lot of praise and treats, or not give us this paw. Let us respect the choice of the dog here. If, for some reason, he is not yet ready to give us a paw, that’s too bad. We’ll try next time. I think now you can see why it is worth starting the whole process when it is dry and when it is not necessary to wipe your dog’s paws.
Training in which we give the dog the opportunity to choose a given behavior takes more time than force action. However, by force wiping a dog’s paws against his will makes the dog stressful and loses his trust in us. So with time he will avoid this unpleasant situation more and more. When all calming and threatening signals are ignored by the handler, the dog will eventually resort to aggressive behavior. At best, we’ll have to deal with wiping the dog’s paws all our lives, and at worst we’ll be bitten by it. However, in the case of training, in which we give the dog the opportunity to choose and have greater control of the whole situation, we build a relationship based on understanding and trust. Such a relationship will translate into the dog’s behavior not only when wiping its paws, but also in other stressful situations.
When looking for a Purebred dog, many people only think about one dream breed. The offers of small dogs of such breeds as pinscher, westie, york, chihuahua and pomeranian (i.e. miniature spitz) are very popular. The problem, however, is that normally well-run dogs are expensive. Discount seekers will always, however, find an opportunity and hit an advertisement where purebred dogs are offered for free or at least half free. So let’s see how to spot real scam ads.
Holy Grail – purebred puppies for free
Legends say that there are cases of free donation of purebred puppies. The problem is that while browsing through hundreds of ads, we’ve never seen a 100% real offer of this type. Usually it turned out that something was wrong with the advertisement after all.
There is a demand for purebred dogs, there must be advertisements and attempts to cheat. Some of the ads are real, others are not. Moderators on classifieds websites try to catch the more suspicious ones, but sometimes something passes. Let’s see what to expect and how to spot a scam!
Unfortunately, most of the ads that grab the attention of all bargain hunters are, unfortunately, fiction. Such advertisements are added to extort personal data or “obtain” an advance payment for a puppy’s reservation. There are also cases that theoretically the dog is completely free – you only have to cover the costs of shipping from some country to Poland. For example, $ 100 payable before shipping. The content of the advertisement depends only on the creativity of the adder. You have to be careful not to be deceived!
How to recognize a fictitious advertisement?
Most often, the content of the advertisement is written in broken Polish. Reading the description, it’s easy to spot strange statements. If something sounds unusual – read it a second time.
Below is an example of the content of an advertisement that has been rejected by site moderators:
“Wonderful puppies Pomeranian Teacup, 1 male and 1 female, AKC registered. Parents are the family’s pets; both mum and dad weigh 4 pounds. They are all loving, friendly and very fun. They grew up with children and other animals. Knotted tails and dewclaws removed, veterinary check included and first set of kicks for the dog. “
“Beautiful puppies of West Highland White Terrier breed The puppies were veterinary tested, potty trained, wormed with microchips. “
Another example (this time labrador puppies for free):
“Top quality puppies with all health information and toy accessories for puppies. They stay up to date with shots that do well with children and other pets. These cute puppies are waiting for you “
As you can see, you don’t even need to be particularly vigilant to notice that something is wrong here. Also pay attention to how the sender writes back the correspondence with you. Any strange statements should make you alert!
The second thing is photos. They usually do not represent the dogs that are actually for sale. These are photos taken from some source. Easily verify the origin of the photo with the help of Google’s image search engine.
In the case of the advertisement from which the first cited description came, the photo was copied directly from a facebook profile:
Another important point – always check who is issuing the advertisement. Usually, suspicious content is displayed by people without a Polish name, such as John Cosworth, Millano, Antonio, Margaritha and others.
Adult purebred dogs to donate or at a low price
These are ads that are usually true. In general, they are not pedigree dogs (although there are also pedigree dogs), but dogs that are of the breed type or very similar to them. In the case of an adult dog, we can already see the end result and it is easier to judge whether it is this breed or another, and whether we like such a dog or not.
Advertisements with purebred dogs for donation are most often issued by shelters. Larger facilities share information about the breed – if identified. It also happens that people want to give the dog back for some important reasons and look for a good home for him. At the Seller, as of the day of writing the article, we have over 780 offers of dogs to give away for free: https:// Sprzedawacz.pl/zwierzeta/psy/psy_zwierzeta/ Most of them come from shelters. If we look for purebred animals (or in the type of a given breed), it turns out that most dogs are between 5 and 10 years old! Dogs of the type of selected breeds currently account for about 10% of advertisements.
Adopting an adult dog is also a very good idea. Perhaps sometimes even better and simpler than raising a puppy. On the one hand, we already know what will grow out of him or her. On the other hand, during adaptation visits, we can get to know the character. From the third, we help and we can make a great friend and give him a new home. There are several more reasons for choosing an adult dog, but you still need to know if you want a dog that is already several years old.
Almost purebred dogs and puppies without pedigree
If the father and mother of the dog are known and both animals are of the type of a given breed, there is a chance that, despite the lack of a pedigree, you will be able to occasionally buy a dog of the breed you want – although formally it will not be purebred. Remember, however, that if a dog is cheap, all possible breeding costs are probably cut. Alternatively, someone actually does does not deal breeding and simply the female dog gave birth to puppies that need to be distributed or sold cheaply. Check what is the real source of such a dog.
Almost purebred puppies are those where we can be sure that the mother is of the X type and the father is unknown. The question is whether the person issuing the advertisement will tell you about it? As a result, it may turn out that the father was a dog of a larger breed than the mother was. What if York weighs 15 kg when he grows up? When buying or taking such a dog for free, you must take this possibility into account. If you accept that the dog will be different, that’s great. If his raciality was the key to you, then don’t go this way!
True purebred dogs (with pedigree)
When the breed of a puppy is a priority for you, do not compromise, just pay the market price and be sure that the dog will be exactly what you expect. Pedigree dogs are, unfortunately, expensive. The cultures have to meet the standards and all the associated stuff costs more. Only registered dog kennels together with the dog provide the owner with a birth certificate. The price is higher, but you can be sure what will grow out of a puppy!
Interestingly, if you decide to choose a fully purebred dog, you will also get to know its family tree. Yes, you will know who your dog’s grandfather was!
Dogs see the world very differently than we do. Their senses work differently from ours. Their brains process information differently. Dogs also have their own means of communication that are often unavailable to us. All this makes trying to get along with the dog can be much more difficult than we think. Therefore, it is good to create a common language that will be understandable both to us and our dogs. Improve your Relationship with your Dog can be very helpful in creating such a language.
What are markers?
In general, markers are all signals that help us communicate with the dog. These can be sound markers, e.g. words spoken by us or the sound of a clicker, visual markers, e.g. gestures, various objects and tactile markers. The latter are especially useful when working with dogs that cannot see and hear. For such dogs, touching the shoulder blade, ear, or mouth can provide the clearest signal.
The use of markers during training makes it easier for the dog to understand us. Thanks to this, he is less frustrated, better focused on the task and learns new commands much faster. Markers can be used both during training sessions and in everyday communication with the dog.
Types of markers
We can distinguish at least six types of markers depending on their function in communication with the dog.
The readiness marker is usually the dog’s name. When uttering them during training, we ask the dog, “Hey, are you ready to go?” When the dog looks at us, we have a clear affirmative answer and we can give him an order. When we don’t have the dog’s attention, the chance that it will obey our command drops drastically. We also need to focus on the task in order to do it well. When our thoughts are elsewhere, we may not even hear that someone is asking us for something, and it looks similar in our dogs.
For many dogs, a sachet of treats or toys can be a marker of readiness, i.e. a signal to start work. If these accessories always appear during training, the dog will quickly recognize them. Our clothes can also be a marker of readiness. Dogs know perfectly well in which shoes we go to work and which shoes are intended for a walk or training. For some dogs, entering a designated area is a marker of readiness. There are many possibilities here.
Reward markers tell your dog that they are doing something right, may be finished, and that they will be rewarded in a moment. A popular marker for a reward is the clicker sound. It is very precise, so we can mark exactly the behavior we want. It is also unambiguous, repeatable and unique, so the dog will not confuse it with other sounds in the environment.
We can also use short voiced words such as “yes”, “si” or “tak” as a reward marker. It is best to chant them differently from the words used in everyday life. We don’t want common words to get confused dog with a reward marker. It is also very important that this award always appears after the award signal. It doesn’t always have to be a treat. Many dogs prefer to work for example for playing with their handler.
You can also have many different reward markers depending on what the reward will be and where it will appear. For example, we can use a clicker as a food marker. The word “have” may mean that food will appear on the ground, and the word “catch” may be an announcement of a toy that we will throw to the dog as a reward for correctly carrying out a command.
No reward markers
The lack of reward marker is a signal for the dog that something went wrong and that this time it will not get the reward. The most commonly used markers of no reward are the words “no”, “ee”, or “ooh.” After saying these words, we simply do not give the dog a reward, which of course is a kind of punishment. It can be compared to playing with the heat of the cold, where warm means we’re getting closer and cold means we’re farther away. Likewise, in communicating with the dog, we can use a clicker or other reward markers to inform him that he is doing something right and markers of lack of reward when he does something carelessly or wrong.
On the one hand, the more feedback you give your dog during training, the better. Try to play with heat cold, using only the word “warm”. Achieving a goal this way is usually much more difficult and frustrating than in play where we get both pieces of information. On the other hand, many people misuse the no reward signal. Words like “no” and “ee” are usually characterized by negative emotions. The no reward marker should be emotionally neutral. You cannot take your frustration or anger out on the dog. If you can’t control your own emotions, you’d better not use the no reward marker. It will also not work for dogs with a very delicate psyche. For such dogs, any dissatisfaction on the part of the handler creates enormous pressure, which these dogs simply cannot cope with.
Also, the no reward signal may not be used when the dog does not know what is required of him or when he does not know what exactly he did wrong. Imagine a situation where you learn a foreign language from scratch and the teacher constantly says “no”, “wrong” etc. This method of learning will not be effective and will quickly discourage you. Imagine a situation where you read a longer piece of text to your teacher and the teacher says “no” at some point. Does it give you clear information when you made a mistake and what exactly was it? Without clear guidance from the teacher, it is not so obvious.
It is similar with the marker of lack of reward when training the dog. The dog often does not know what he has done wrong and how he can correct it. It only adds to the frustration and does not get any closer to achieving the goal. Therefore, when the dog is not following a command correctly, it is usually best to simply go back to an earlier stage in learning. Before demanding anything from a dog, we must make sure that it knows exactly what we mean.
Due to all the reservations and mistakes that are very easy to make, I advise you to be very careful when introducing no reward markers into your training. If you decide to use them, it’s best to do it under the supervision of a more experienced trainer.
When training a dog, we often not only want him to assume a position, e.g. sit or lie down, but also to keep this position for a long time. This is where the continuation markers are very helpful, that is, popular praise such as “bravo” or “good”. Hearing these words, the dog knows that he is doing well and that he has to continue this behavior in order to get a reward.
Unfortunately, many dog handlers forget about these praises. They say, for example, “sit down”, the dog sits down for two seconds, but nothing happens, there is no human feedback. The dog may feel that he is doing something wrong. So she gets up and sits down again. Nothing again? This begins to give the paw, lie down, and display other behaviors that previously rewarded. This way the dog tries to guess what you really mean. If your dog is behaving this way, it is very possible that your communication during training is not the best and it is worth introducing continuation markers.
Another very useful marker is the release marker. I wrote a little more about him in this post. The release marker tells the dog that the exercise is over and that he can do something else. For example, when we teach the dog to sit down and extend this position, it is worth teaching him that a speed marker will appear at the end of the exercise. In my case it’s the word “ok”, but you can also use other words like “already”, “can” or “run”. Thanks to this, the dog does not get impatient, but calmly waits for the release marker. Without this marker, the dog may break commands frequently, as it will never know when the exercise is over.
The End Marker can be used at the end of a training session or at the end of a game. An excited dog may not know when a training session is over and will demand our attention long after it is over. Therefore, it is worth introducing an end marker, which means “This is the end of training / fun. You are free, do what you want. ” For me, it is the word “end”, but I also encountered the command “free” or “thank you”. After issuing the end marker, we hide the treats, toys and do not take care of the dog. We don’t play with him. We don’t give any orders anymore.
How to enter markers
It is possible that you are already using some of these markers in a more or less conscious way. It is very important to systematize them and create your own dictionary of communication with the dog. Think in what situations and why you want to use the marker. What word, sound or gesture will the marker mean. If this is not clear to you, how is your dog going to get it?
Of course, all people training with a dog should use the same dictionary. Dogs are very intelligent, and even if one person uses a marker and another doesn’t, the dog will figure out what’s going on over time. However, this is an additional difficulty for the dog, which significantly extends the training and may be a source of unnecessary frustration for the dog. It is as if he had to speak a different language to each member of the family.
It is also important to teach each marker that we use in communication with the dog first. Dogs aren’t born knowing what a clicker sound means or words like “ok”, “bravo” or “finished”. At the beginning, all these sounds are neutral for the dog and only we, during appropriate training, give them meaning.
I am very curious, which markers do you consciously or unconsciously use in communicating with your dogs?